# HYDRAULIC TURBINES

Turbines are defined as the hydraulic machines which converts hydraulic energy in to mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of Turbine. Thus mechanical energy is converted in to electrical energy. The electric power which is obtained from the hydraulic energy is known as the Hydro-electric power.

Efficiency of a Turbine: The following are the important efficiencies of Turbine.

a) Hydraulic Efficiency,

b) Mechanical Efficiency,

c) Volumetric Efficiency,

d) Overall Efficiency,

## a) Hydraulic Efficiency:

It is defined as the ratio of power given by the water to the runner of a turbine (runner is a rotating part of a turbine and on the runner vanes are fixed) to the power supplied by the water at the inlet of the turbine. The power at the inlet of the turbine is more and this power goes on decreasing as the water flows over the vanes of the turbine due to hydraulic losses as the vanes are not smooth. Hence power delivered to the runner of the turbine will be less than the power available at the inlet of the turbine.

## b) Mechanical Efficiency:

## c) Volumetric Efficiency:

The volume of the water striking the runner of the turbine is slightly less than the volume of water supplied to the turbine. Some of the volume of the water is discharged to the tailrace without striking the runner of the turbine. Thus the ratio of the volume of the water supplied to the turbine is defined as Volumetric Efficiency.

## d) Overall Efficiency:

It is defined as the ratio of power available at the shaft of the turbine to the power supplied by the water at the inlet of the turbine.

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