Natural Gas: Utilization of Natural Gas, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Utilization of LPG, Advantages of LPG and Disadvantages of LPG ~ MECHTECH GURU

Natural Gas: Utilization of Natural Gas, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Utilization of LPG, Advantages of LPG and Disadvantages of LPG

Natural Gas

-Natural gas is present in the earth and is often produced in association with the production of crude oil. Processing is required to separate the gas from petroleum liquids and to remove contaminants. First, the gas is separated from free liquids such as crude oil, hydrocarbon condensate, water and entrained solids. The separated gas is further processed to meet certain pipelines quality specifications with respect to water content, hydrocarbon dew point, heating value and hydrogen sulphide content. Generally, a gas sweetening plant removes hydrogen sulphide and other sulfur compounds.

- Over 70% of the natural gas is formed by methane.

-It is Colorless, odorless and mostly constitutes methane which is a relatively unreactive hydrocarbon.

Utilization of Natural Gas

-Natural gas is widely used for different purposes such as space heating, electricity generation, industrial processes, agricultural, raw material for petrochemical industry, residential, commercial and utility markets.

-On a gallon equivalent basis, natural gas costs less than gasoline, diesel fuel or any other alternative fuel. Natural gas currently supplies over 25% of the energy demand because of its quality.

-can either be stored on board a vehicle in tanks as compressed natural gas (CNG) at pressure of 16 to 25 bar or cryogenically cooled to a liquid state (-127 °C) as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at pressure of 70 to 120 bar. As a fuel and with a single throttle body injector it works best in an engine system. LNG is used in heavy duty vehicles where use of CNG would still entail space and load carrying capacity penalties. The fuel storage system of natural gas as LNG instead of CNG is less than half the weight and volume of CNG system. So, it can be easily transportable than CNG.

(i) CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

-Natural gas consists of elements of compressor, some sort of compressed gas storage and dispensing unit of CNG into vehicles.

-Two types of CNG refueling system- slow fill and fast fill. In slow fill system, several vehicles are connected to the output of the compressor at one time. These vehicles are then refilled over several hours of compressor operation. In fast fill systems, enough CNG is stored so that several vehicles can be refueled one after the other, just like refueling from a single gasoline dispenser.

-The storage system of CNG is arranged as several tanks in cascade form. The CNG pressure in cascade is higher than the maximum storage pressure of the cylinder on the vehicle. The cascade attempts to deliver as much of its CNG to vehicles as possible before the pressure difference decreases to where the flow rate slows dramatically. A dryer should include in most CNG refueling systems to remove water vapor, impurities and hydrogen sulphide from natural gas before it is compressed. If water vapor is present then it can condense in the vehicle fuel system, causing corrosion especially if hydrogen sulphide is present. CNG driven vehicles with catalytic converter have less CO and HC emission but NOx emission is high.

(ii) LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

-LPG is available in the market in two forms- one is propane and the other is butane. Propane is popular alternative fuel because of its infrastructure of pipe lines, processing facilities and storage for its efficient distribution and also it produces fewer emissions. Propane is produced as a byproduct of natural gas processing and crude oil refining.

-Natural gas contains LPG, water vapor and other impurities and about 55% of the LPG is compressed from natural gas purification. LPG is a simple mixture of hydrocarbon mainly propane/propylene (C3S) and butane/ butylenes (C4S).

-Propane is an odorless, nonpoisonous gas which has lowest flammability range.

Utilization of LPG

LPG is used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer

-In Europe, LPG is used as an alternative to electricity and heating oil (kerosene).It can also be used as power source for combined heat and power technologies (CHP). CHP is the process of generating both electrical power and useful heat from a single fuel source. This technology has allowed LPG to be used not just as fuel for heating and cooking, but also for de-centralized generation of electricity

-LPG has higher potential as an alternate fuel for IC engine.

Advantages of LPG

-Emission is much reduced by the use of LPG.

-LPG mixes with air at all temperatures.

-Uniform mixture can be supplied to all cylinders of multi-cylinder engine.

-Engine with high compression ratio (10:1) can use propane.

-There is cost saving of about 50% and longer life with LPG running engine.

Disadvantages of LPG

(i) A good cooling system is necessary because LPG vaporizer uses engine coolant to provide the heat to convert the liquid LPG to gas.

(ii) The weight of vehicle is increased due to the use of heavy pressure cylinder for storing LPG.

(iii) A special fuel feed system is required for LPG.

(iv) Requirement of safety device to prevent accident due to explosion of gas cylinders or leakage in the gas pipes.

Natural Gas: Utilization of Natural Gas, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Utilization of LPG, Advantages of LPG and Disadvantages of LPG
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

Next Post »