Hardness Test of Materials, ROCKWEL HARDNESS TESTER

Hardness Test of Materials

AIM: - Hardness Test of Materials

OBJECTIVE: - To conduct hardness test on mild steel, carbon steel, brass and aluminum specimens

APPARATUS:-Hardness tester, soft and hard mild steel specimens, brass, aluminum etc.



THEORY: - The hardness of a material is resistance to penetration under a localized pressure or resistance to abrasion. Hardness tests provide an accurate, rapid and economical way of determining the resistance of materials to deformation. There are three general types of hardness measurements depending upon the manner in which the test is conducted:

a. Scratch hardness measurement,

b. Rebound hardness measurement

c. Indention hardness measurement

In scratch hardness method the material are rated on their ability to scratch one another and it is usually used by mineralogists only. In rebound hardness measurement, a standard body is usually dropped on to the material surface and the hardness is measured in terms of the height of its rebound .The general means of judging the hardness is measuring the resistance of a material to indentation. The indenters usually a ball cone or pyramid of a material much harder than that being used. Hardened steel, sintered tungsten carbide or diamond indenters are generally used in indentation tests; a load is applied by Pressing the indenter at right angles to the surface being tested. The hardness of the material depends on the resistance which it exerts during a small amount of yielding or plastic. The resistance depends on friction, elasticity, viscosity and the intensity and distribution of plastic strain produced by a given tool during indentation


1. Place the specimen securely upon the anvil

2. Elevate the specimen so that it come into contact with the penetrate and

put the specimen under a preliminary or minor load of 100+2N without shock

3. Apply the major load 900N by loading lever

4. Watch the pointer until it comes to rest

5. Remove the major load

6. Read the Rockwell hardness number or hardness scale

RESULT:- The hardness of the metal is found to be…….


1. Brinell test should be performed on smooth, flat specimens from which dirt and scale have been cleaned

2. The test should not be made on specimens so thin that the impression shows through the metal, nor should impression be made too close to the edge of a specimen

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