The Lathe: Function of Lathe, Types of Lathe ~ MECHTECH GURU

The Lathe: Function of Lathe, Types of Lathe


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The Lathe:-
·        The Lathe is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tools all over the world. It is commonly known as the mother of all the machine tool.
·        In the year 1797 Henry Maudslay, an Englishman, designed the first screw cutting lathe which is forerunner of the present day high speed, heavy duty production lathe, a machine tool which has practically given shape to our present day by building machines and industries.
Function of Lathe:-
·   The main function of lathe is to remove material from the workpiece to give it the required shape and size.
·        This is accomplished by holding the workpiece securely on the machine and then turning it against the tool which will remove the material from the workpiece.
·        To cut the material properly the tool should be harder than the workpiece material, should be rigidly held on the machine and should be fed in a definite way relative to the workpiece.
Types of Lathe:-
Lathes are manufactured in a variety of types and sizes, from very small bench lathes used for precision work to huge lathes used for turning large steel shafts. But the principle of operation and function of all types of lathes is same.
-     The different types of lathes are:
1.                Speed Lathe                             3.     Bench lathe
A.                Wood working              4.     Tool room lathe
B.                Centering                      5.     Capstan & Turret lathe
C.               Polishing                       6.      Special purpose lathe
D.               spinning                                A.  Wheel lathe
2.                Engine Lathe                                   B.  Gap bed lathe
A.                Belt drive                               C.  T – lathe
B.                Individual motor drive           D.  Duplicating lathe
C.               Gear drive                      7.     Automatic lathe


Speed lathe
·        Speed lathe is the simplest type of lathe. It consists of bed, headstock, tailstock and tool post. There is no feed box, lead screw or carriage.
·        Tool is mounted on the tool post and is fed into work purely by hand control. Due to this characteristic of lathe enables the designer to give high speeds range from 1200 to 3600 r.p.m.
·        The headstock construction is very simple and only two or three speeds are available.
·        The “speed lathe” has been so named because of the very high speed of the spindle speed. It is mainly used for wood working, spinning, centering and polishing etc.
Engine lathe
·        It is the most common types of lathe and is widely used in workshop.
·        Similar to the speed lathe, the engine lathe has got all the basic parts, e.g. bed, headstock and tailstock. But the headstock of an engine lathe is much more robust in construction and it contains mechanism for multiple speeds.
·        The cutting tool may be fed both in cross and longitudinal direction with reference to the lathe axis with the help of carriage.
·        Engine lathes are classified according to the method of power transmission to the machine.
Bench lathe 
·        It is usually mounted on a bench.
·        It has practically all the parts of an engine lathe and it performs all the operations, its only difference being in the size. This is used for small and precise work.
Tool room lathe
·        A tool room lathe having features similar to an engine lathe and is much more accurate and has wide range of speed from vary low to 2500 r.p.m.
·        It is used for manufacturing precision components, dies, tools, jigs etc. and hence it is called as tool rom lathe.
Capstan & Turret lathe
·        These lathes have provision to hold a number of tools and can be used for performing wider range of operations.
·        These are particularly suitable for mass production of identical parts in minimum time.
Special purpose lathe
·        They are used for special purposes and for jobs which cannot be accommodated or conveniently machined on a standard lathe.
·        Wheel lathe is used to produce locomotive wheels.
·        Gap bed lathe is used for machining extra-large diameter workpiece.
·        T Lathe is used for machining of rotors for jet engines.
·        Duplicating lathe is used for duplicating the shape of a flat or round template on to the workpiece.
·    Automatic lathe
·    These are high speed, heavy duty, mass production lathes with complete automatic control. Once the tools are set and the machine is started it performs all the operations to finish the job.
·       The changing of tools, speeds and feeds are also done automatically.

Size of Lathe
·        The size of a lathe is expressed by the following items and shown in Fig




·        The height of the center measured from the lathe bed.
·        The swing diameter over bed is the largest diameter of workpiece that will revolve without touching the bed and is twice the height of the center measured from the bed of the lathe.
·        The length between center is the maximum length of the workpiece that can be mounted between two centres.
·        The swing diameter over carriage is the largest diameter of workpiece that will revolve over the saddle, and is always less than the swing diameter over bed.
·        The maximum bar diameter is the maximum diameter of bar stock that will pass through hole of the headstock spindle.
·        The length of bed indicates the approximate floor space occupied by the lathe.
·        Other important particulars to specify the lathe are width of the bed, depth of the bed, depth and width of gap if gap bed lathe, swing over gap. Spindle nose diameter, center taper, Morse number and range of spindle speeds, number of feeds pitch of lead screw etc.


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mandi indars
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